If you have sufficient battery power and the relay is good the solenoid will make a noise as it try to turn the starter. A true solenoid test reuires a 1000 amp ammeter and the ability to check the RPMs when charged, so it is not very practical. However there is a plunger return test that you can performa and I am attaching instructions and FIG3 which is refferred to in them.
I am also going to give you the starter cicuit diagram. Advanace Auto or Auto Zone may be able to test the solenoid. I know they can test the starter and will do so for free.
Images (Click to enlarge)
Monday, October 8th, 2012 AT 5:16 PM