Article describes how an automotive brake system works.
Brake systems are designed to slow the vehicles wheel movement through friction.
There are primarily two brake types of systems, ABS and non ABS (anti-lock brake
system). Both systems work on basic hydraulics and utilize a brake master cylinder
(connected to the brake pedal) that supplies brake fluid pressure to the front brake
calipers and rear wheel cylinder or brake calipers if so equipped. The brake system
requires hydraulic force that is many times greater than the force applied by the
foot. This added hydraulic force is achieved by leverage multiplication.
Power brake systems utilize either vacuum (vacuum assist) or power steering (hydro-boost)
to multiply the force without added pedal effort. When the brake pedal is forced
down brake fluid from the master cylinder is transferred to the brake caliper piston,
pressurized fluid is transmitted to the brake calipers or wheel cylinders.
Typical Non ABS Brake System
A major problem to a brake system is a brake fluid leakage, if there is a slow
leak in the system it will affect the brake master cylinder by allowing air into
the system creating a low pedal and eventual brake operation failure. If a large
brake fluid leak is present, fluid escapes, leading to a major brake failure on
one half of the system (front or rear.) A master cylinder has a built in safety
device, two separate hydraulic systems a primary and secondary, with separate reservoirs
separating front and rear brake operation. In case of front or rear brake operation
failure, one system will still be present.
Common Problems and Fixes
Today's brake systems are reliable and easy to maintain, most systems are designed
for easy service and brake pad replacement. If the brake pedal becomes hard to push,
there can be a possibility of a broken vacuum supply line or a failed power brake
booster. It is also very important to use the correct type of brake fluid; otherwise
the brake system can malfunction. This can lead to problems such as spongy feeling
pedal and the brake pedal travel becoming excessive. Only the highest quality brake
fluid must be used in a brake system and must never be reused and new fluid must
always be closed immediately after use to avoid moisture contamination. When adding
brake fluid to the master cylinder, care must be taken to not spilled fluid onto
the paint of the car, brake fluid is very corrosive and will destroy the surface.
Squealing brakes is an indication of a problem with the brake system. A squealing
noise can be a warning that the brake pads are worn and need replacement. Other
causes can be overheated brake pads or rotors. Sometimes rust can get impregnated
on the brake lining material and cause grumbling or squeaking noises. When cleaning
brake components prior to service precautions must be taken. Most brake systems
contain microscopic fibers that are hazardous to a person's health. Cleaning should
be done in a well ventilated area, use an air filter respirator if possible for
When the ABS system detects a problem, a fault code is stored in the ABS system
control unit. The ABS warning light will begin to flash or stays on steadily. The
ABS computer has stored a diagnostic code to help the system to be repaired. To
retrieve these ABS trouble codes on older vehicles can be tricky because of the
variation of retrieval methods; in this case a car repair manual is needed. On newer
vehicles a diagnostic information connector is located under the dash on the driver's
side; a trouble code scanner can be attached to the ALDL connector to retrieve ABS
codes, similar to engine trouble codes.
After the problem has been repaired, codes should erase automatically with no
procedure from the scan tool in most cases (real-time system.) When the vehicle
has been moved about 6 feet and the brake pedal has been pressed for five seconds
the codes should clear. When repairs have been completed the ABS, MIL (malfunction
indicator lamp) should not be illuminated, if the ABS light remains "ON" there is
still a problem, re-scan the ABS computer for further repairs.
The brake proportioning or combination valve is located in line with the front
and rear brakes. This valve is used to monitor the brake system pressure from front
to rear and warn you if a fluid pressure drop is detected. When a system failure
is detected a brake warning light is illuminated on the instrument cluster.
Its important to inspect a brake system at regular intervals by checking the
level of brake fluid in the master cylinder and the thickness of the brake pads
or shoes. Before checking the brake fluid level, the cover of the master cylinder
must be wiped off so no foreign material can fall inside the reservoir. Flush a
brake system with manufacturer recommended brake fluid (DOT 3 or 4) when a brake
service is performed to ensure proper operation of the ABS system.
An ABS brake system is a computerized wheel speed sensing system that can detect
when one or more wheels is not rotating as fast as the remaining wheels. The system
will then dump brake pressure to those wheels until the wheel (or wheels) can maintain
equal rotation speed. ABS brake systems utilize a series of wheel speed sensors,
a brake control module and a main ABS control unit. The ABS control unit controls
and monitors the ABS brake system. These brake components help keep the vehicle
under control in heavy braking conditions.
Brake fade is a condition that occurs when the brakes on the vehicle stop working
even though there is good pedal and no obvious problems with the brake system. This
condition presents itself when the brake system is overheated. When friction is
applied to a rotating mass (brake rotor or drum) the kinetic energy is transferred
into heat, when the brake rotor is overheated it cannot absorb any additional heat
which inhibits performance. This will cause the brakes to fail no matter how hard
the brake pedal is applied. This condition can occur when braking down long grades
and in high performance applications, where repeated acceleration and braking occurs
over a short period of time.
Keep a vehicles brake system serviced every 15,000 to 25,000 miles. Inspect brake
fluid, master cylinder, pads, flex hoses and shoes for fluid leaks. When replacing
brake system components always use top quality OEM (original equipment manufacturer)
brake parts. Many inexpensive brake parts may squeak, grumble and need replacement
The emergency brake system performs two operations, it helps hold the car when
parked on a hill, plus it can help stop the vehicle if the conventional brake system
has failed. Check emergency brake periodically to ensure proper operation as part
of a normal brake service regiment.
Brake System Components
Power Brake Booster - A power brake booster utilizes engine vacuum to help pressurize
the hydraulic system when the brake pedal is depressed.
Brake Pad Set - Semi metallic brake pads are generally made with copper, brass,
and steel wool shavings held together in a resin. Ceramic based pads are also available
for high performance applications.
Brake Rotor - Many variations of this part includes: vented, slotted and cross drilled.
Rear Brake Caliper - Brake calipers provide hydraulic pressure to the brake pads
and apply friction to the brake rotor to slow the vehicle.
Brake Master Cylinder - A brake master cylinder provides hydraulic pressure to the
wheel cylinders and calipers.
Brake Shoe Set - Rear brake shoes are actuated by wheel cylinders that force the
brake shoes against the brake drum with hydraulic pressure from the master cylinder.
Wheel Cylinder - Pressure from the brake system is applied to the brake cylinders
forcing the brake shoes against the brake drum.
Article first published 2016-02-03