Hope this helps for description of operation on charging system.
Charging System Description and Operation
The following information is for the 12-Volt battery only.
For information about charging the high voltage drive motor batteries, refer toJump Assist Description and Operation ().
Electrical Power Management (EPM) Overview
The electrical power management (EPM) system is designed to monitor and control the charging system and send diagnostic messages to alert the driver of possible problems. This EPM system primarily utilizes existing on-board computer capability to maximize the effectiveness of the charging system, manage the load, improve battery state-of-charge and life, and minimize the system's impact on fuel economy. The EPM system performs 3 functions:
It monitors the battery voltage and estimates the battery condition.
It takes corrective actions by adjusting the regulated voltage.
It performs diagnostics and driver notification.
The battery condition is estimated during ignition off and during ignition on. During ignition off the state-of-charge (SOC) of the battery is determined by measuring the open-circuit voltage. The SOC is a function of the acid concentration and the internal resistance of the battery, and is estimated by reading the battery open circuit voltage when the battery has been at rest for several hours.
The SOC can be used as a diagnostic tool to tell the customer or the dealer the condition of the battery. Throughout ignition-on, the algorithm continuously estimates SOC based on adjusted net amp hours, battery capacity, initial SOC, and temperature.
While running, the battery degree of discharge is primarily determined by a battery current sensor, which is integrated to obtain net amp hours.
In addition, the EPM function is designed to perform regulated voltage control (RVC) to improve battery SOC, battery life, and fuel economy. This is accomplished by using knowledge of the battery SOC and temperature to set the charging voltage to an optimum battery voltage level for recharging without detriment to battery life.
Charging System Components
The drive motor/generators are serviceable components located within the transmission housing. When the rotors are spun, an alternating current (AC) is induced into the stator windings. This AC voltage is then sent to the drive motor generator power inverter module (PIM) where it is converted to high voltage direct current (DC) power. The output of the PIM is converted into low voltage electrical power by the accessory DC power converter module (APM) for use by the vehicle's electrical system to maintain electrical loads and battery charge.
Body Control Module (BCM)
The body control module (BCM) is a GMLAN device. It communicates with the engine control module (ECM) and the instrument panel cluster (IPC) for electrical power management (EPM) operation. The BCM determines the desired voltage set point and sends the information to the APM. The BCM monitors a battery current sensor, the battery positive voltage circuit, and estimated battery temperature to determine battery state of charge (SOC).
Battery Current Sensor
The battery current sensor is a serviceable component that is connected to the negative battery cable at the battery. The battery current sensor is a 3-wire hall effect current sensor. The battery current sensor monitors the battery current. It directly inputs to the BCM. It creates a 5-volt pulse width modulation (PWM) signal of 128 Hz with a duty cycle of 0-100 percent. Normal duty cycle is between 5-95 percent. Between 0-5 percent and 95-100 percent are for diagnostic purposes.
Engine Control Module (ECM)
The ECM receives control decisions based on messages from the BCM.
Instrument Panel Cluster (IPC)
The IPC provides a means of customer notification in case of a failure and a voltmeter. There are 2 means of notification, a charge indicator and a driver information center (DIC) message of SERVICE BATTERY CHARGING SYSTEM.
Charging System Operation
The purpose of the charging system is to maintain the battery charge and vehicle loads. There are 6 modes of operation and they include:
Battery Sulfation Mode
Fuel Economy Mode
Voltage Reduction Mode
Plant Assembly Mode
Battery Sulfation Mode
The BCM will enter this mode when the interpreted charging system voltage is less than 13.2 volts for 30 minutes. When this condition exists the BCM will enter Normal Mode for 5 minutes. The BCM will then determine which mode to enter depending on voltage requirements.
The BCM will enter Normal Mode when ever one of the following conditions are met.
The wipers are ON for more than 3 seconds.
GMLAN Climate Control Voltage Boost Mode Request is true, as sensed by the HVAC control head. High speed cooling fan, rear defogger and HVAC high speed blower operation can cause the BCM to enter the Charge Mode.
The estimated battery temperature is less than 0 C (32 F).
Vehicle Speed is greater than 145 km/h (90 mph)
Current Sensor Fault Exists
System Voltage was determined to be below 12.56 volts
Tow/Haul Mode is enabled
When any one of these conditions is met, the system will set targeted generator output voltage to a charging voltage between 13.9-15.5 volts, depending on the battery state of charge and estimated battery temperature.
Fuel Economy Mode
The BCM will enter Fuel Economy Mode when the ambient air temperature is at least 0 C (32 F) but less than or equal to 80 C (176 F), the calculated battery current is greater than -8 amps but less than 5 amps, and the battery state of charge (SOC) is greater than or equal to 85 percent. Its targeted APM set-point voltage is the open circuit voltage of the battery and can be between 12.6-13.2 volts. The BCM will exit this mode and enter Normal Mode when any of the conditions described above are present.
The BCM will enter Headlamp Mode when ever the high or low beam headlamps are ON. Voltage will be regulated between 13.9-14.5 volts
Voltage Reduction Mode
The BCM will enter Voltage Reduction Mode when the calculated battery temperature is above 0 C (32 F) and the calculated battery current is greater than -7 amps but less than 1 amp. Its targeted APM set-point voltage is 12.9-13.2 volts. The BCM will exit this mode once the criteria are met for Normal Mode.
Plant Assembly Mode
The BCM will increase charging voltage for the first 500 miles of operation in an effort to ensure that the 12 volt battery is fully charged when the vehicle is delivered to the customer.
Instrument Panel Cluster (IPC) Operation
Charge Indicator Operation
The instrument panel cluster (IPC) illuminates the charge indicator and displays a warning message in the driver information center (DIC) when the one or more of the following occurs:
The engine control module (ECM) detects system voltage less than 11 volts or greater than 16 volts. The IPC receives a GMLAN message from the ECM requesting illumination.
The BCM determines that the system voltage is less than 11 volts or greater than 16 volts.
The IPC receives a GMLAN message from the body control module (BCM) indicating there is a system voltage range concern.
The IPC performs the displays test at the start of each ignition cycle. The indicator illuminates for approximately 3 seconds.
The ignition is ON, with the engine OFF.
Battery Voltage Gauge Operation
The IPC displays the system voltage as received from the BCM over the GMLAN serial data circuit. If there is no communication with the BCM then the gauge will indicate minimum.
This vehicle is equipped with a regulated voltage control (RVC) system. This will cause the voltmeter to fluctuate between 12 and 14 volts, as opposed to non-regulated systems which usually maintain a more consistent reading of 14 volts. This fluctuation with the RVC system is normal system operation and NO repairs should be attempted.
SERVICE BATTERY CHARGING SYSTEM
The BCM and the ECM will send a GMLAN message to the DIC for the SERVICE BATTERY CHARGING SYSTEM message to be displayed. It is displayed whenever the charge indicator is commanded ON due to a failure
To be on the safe side, always use OEM parts. Seems like the system is normal and Optima is saying it is not since they do not want to be liable for a deffective battery?
Monday, February 7th, 2011 AT 3:56 AM