A car is judged by its engine power and a good way to increase that power is to add a turbo charger. This device is connected to the engine's exhaust system and also the intake air of the intake manifold. Expanding gases from the exhaust system spin a turbine on one side of the turbo chargers housing. This turbine is connected to another turbine which is attached to an additional turbine on the opposite side of the turbo which is then plumbed into the intake system. As the exhaust system increases in volume, both turbines spin faster. As the turbine on the intake side of the system spins it creates pressure inside the intake which forces more air into the combustion chamber that in turn creates more power. The principle of forcing more air into the engine is the same concept as a super charger except for the method in which the pressure is built is different. The intake system for the turbo sucks air in through the intercooler which is connected to the air cleaner. An intercooler is used to cool down the intake charge where heat is naturally built up as the air is compressed. This cooler sits in the front of the car by the radiator where it can get cool air through it before it enters the intake manifold. Once the air charge is pressurized it moves into the intake system and into the combustion chamber.
When the exhaust valves of an engine open red hot fire is released into the exhaust ports. These ports are connected to the exhaust manifold where the exhaust is collected and magnified. From the exhaust manifold the gases are funneled into the turbo charger housing on the exhaust side which is where the turbine starts spinning. In the image below it shows what it looks like from the exhaust side of the turbo.
The turbo main shaft is used to connect the exhaust impeller to the intake impeller and is supported within the turbo housing with the use of two bushings. This shaft is lubricated using engine oil while using seals to control oil leakage into the turbo exhaust or intake side.
A blow off valve or waste gate is used to control pressure within the intake system so it doesn't become overloaded which will cause internal engine damage. This valve is activated by a vacuum diagram which is controlled by a solenoid connected to intake vacuum. The solenoid is given a signal from the computer when to let pressure off when pressures become too high inside the intake manifold.
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