Mechanics

ON START UP ENGINE SOUNDS NORMAL FOR ABOUT 5 MINUTES THEN DEVOPES A TOP END KNOCKING NOISE

2002 Volvo S40 • 80,000 miles

Sounds like camshaft noise or variable valve control problem
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Davie smith
January 11, 2012.



ENGINE CONTROLS - ON-VEHICLE ADJUSTMENTS -2002 Volvo S40
Page 1 of 7
VALVE CLEARANCE

NOTE: Valve clearance adjustment requires camshaft cover removal.
Valve Clearance Checking

1.
Remove the cover from the rear of the intake camshaft. Remove the upper timing cover and the cover over the ignition coils. See Fig. 3 and Fig. 4.
Fig. 3: Removing/Installing Front Engine Covers Courtesy of VOLVO CARS OF NORTH AMERICA.
Fig. 4: Removing/Installing Top Engine Cover Courtesy of VOLVO CARS OF NORTH AMERICA.
2.
Remove the ignition coils without removing the connectors. Mark coil location before removal. Remove the two ground connections. Remove the connector for the variable valve timing
solenoid. See Fig. 5. Remove the right front wheel.
Fig. 5: Locating Ignition Coil Ground Lead
Courtesy of VOLVO CARS OF NORTH AMERICA.
NOTE: If the crankshaft is turned to far, it is essential that it is turned back
at least a quarter of a turn so that it can then be turned clockwise to
the correct position.
Fig. 6: Installation Of Valve Checking Tool
Courtesy of VOLVO CARS OF NORTH AMERICA.
3.
Set the camshafts to the test position. Install Valve Checking Tool (999 5753) at the rear of the intake camshaft. See Fig. 6. Turn the crankshaft in the direction of rotation (clockwise) until the
marking on the tool (In1/Ex3) is opposite the thin flange (casting ridge) running straight over the entire top of the cylinder head. Remove all plugs from the inspection holes.
NOTE: Check valve clearance with the engine at room temperature. Valve clearance specification is at ambient temperature of 68°F (20°C).
Clearance increases.0004" (.01 mm) for every 41°F (5°C) of
temperature increase.
Fig. 7: Checking Valve Clearance Through Inspection Hole Courtesy of VOLVO CARS OF NORTH AMERICA.
4.
Check the valve clearance. Measure the valve clearance using a Feeler Gauge (999 5752) at cylinder No. 1 intake valves and cylinder No. 3 exhaust valves. Insert the feeler gauge through the
inspection holes. Bend the feeler gauge with light finger pressure so that it follows the top of the valve lifter. See Fig. 7. The correct measurement will not be obtained until the feeler gauge has
gone in approximately.6" (15 mm). Valve clearance should be.006-.018" (.15-.45 mm) for intake valves and.014-.024" (.35-.60 mm) for exhaust valves. Record the valve clearance measured.

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ENGINE CONTROLS - ON-VEHICLE ADJUSTMENTS -2002 Volvo S40
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5.
Turn the crankshaft in the direction of rotation until the next marking, In2/Ex1, is opposite the flange on top of the cylinder head. Perform the test measurement as described in step 4. Continue
by measuring the remaining valve clearances according to the markings on the Valve Checking Tool (999 5753).
Once valve checking is completed, install the plugs for the inspection holes. Tighten plugs to 15 ft. Lbs. (20 N.M). Install the ignition coils. Install the ground connections. See Fig. 5. Install the
connector for the variable valve timing solenoid. Remove Valve Checking Tool (999 5753). Install a new cover at the rear of the intake camshaft. Install the right front wheel. Install
remaining components.
6.
7.
Setting & Adjusting Valve Clearance

Remove the cable from the battery negative terminal. See BATTERY
DISCONNECT/RECONNECT PRECAUTIONS. Remove the starter motor. Remove the bolts for the starter motor. See Fig. 8. Remove the support bracket for the intake manifold. See Fig. 9.
Remove the connector for the oil pressure switch. See Fig. 10. Unhook the starter motor and allow it to hang.

1.
Fig. 8: Identifying Starter Mounting Bolts
Courtesy of VOLVO CARS OF NORTH AMERICA.
Fig. 9: Locating Dipstick & Intake Manifold Bracket Courtesy of VOLVO CARS OF NORTH AMERICA.
Fig. 10: Locating Oil Pressure Sensor Connector Courtesy of VOLVO CARS OF NORTH AMERICA.
2.
Remove the following components: ? Cover over the injector.
? Cover over the throttle body.
? Upper timing cover. See Fig. 3.
? Cover over the ignition coils. See Fig. 4. ? Front timing cover.
? Inlet hose the mass air flow sensor. ? Throttle body.
? Auxiliaries belt. See Fig. 11.
Fig. 11: Releasing Tension On Auxiliaries (Serpentine) Belt Courtesy of VOLVO CARS OF NORTH AMERICA.
3. Remove the bolt from the ignition coil ground. See Fig. 5. Remove the variable valve timing valve connector. Remove the ignition coil connectors.
Remove the camshaft position sensor. Place the cable harness to one side. Unbolt the cable duct from the rear edge of the cylinder head and the throttle body bracket. See Fig. 12.
4.
Fig. 12: Locating Cable Duct
Courtesy of VOLVO CARS OF NORTH AMERICA.

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ENGINE CONTROLS - ON-VEHICLE ADJUSTMENTS -2002 Volvo S40
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5.
Remove the connector for the engine coolant temperature sensor. Remove the injector connectors. Place the cable duct and cable harness to one side. Mark up and remove the ignition coils and
ignition cables.
Remove the rear cover for the intake camshaft. Remove the camshaft position sensor housing. Remove the trigger wheel. Remove the hose for the crankcase ventilation from the camshaft
cover.
Remove the metal bracket for the servo hose from the rotation guard for the auxiliaries belt. See Fig. 13. Position Lifting Beam (999 5006) slightly in front of the front lifting eyelet for the
engine. Use Lifting Arm (999 5383) and Lifting Hook (999 5460) to raise the front of the a few millimeters. See Fig. 14.
6.
7.
Fig. 13: Identifying Auxiliaries (Serpentine) Belt Guard Courtesy of VOLVO CARS OF NORTH AMERICA.
Fig. 14: Positioning Engine Lifting Beam
Courtesy of VOLVO CARS OF NORTH AMERICA.
8.
Remove the right-hand engine mount. Remove the bolts for the servo holder. Remove the mounting bolts and the mounting. See Fig. 15.
Fig. 15: Locating Right Engine Mount
Courtesy of VOLVO CARS OF NORTH AMERICA.
9.
Position the camshaft pulleys according to the markings. Remove the right front wheel. Position the upper timing cover. Turn the crankshaft until the markings on the crankshaft and camshaft
pulley correspond. See Fig. 16. Turn the crankshaft clockwise a quarter turn and then back again until the markings correspond. Remove the upper timing cover.
Fig. 16: Identifying Timing Belt Alignment Markings Courtesy of VOLVO CARS OF NORTH AMERICA.
10.
Remove the timing belt. Loosen the center bolt for the timing belt tensioner slightly. Hold the center bolt still. Turn the tensioner eccentric clockwise using a 6 mm Allen key to 10 o'clock. See
Fig. 17. Remove the timing belt from the tension pulley, camshaft pulley and water pump.
Remove the timing gear pulleys. See CAMSHAFT SEALS
INSTALLATION in 1.9L 4-CYLINDER TURBO ENGINE article.
12. Remove the camshaft cover. Remove the Variable Valve Timing (VVT) control valve. See Fig. 18. Remove the spark plugs from cylinders No. 1 and 4. Install 2 Cover Hold-Downs (999 5454).
See Fig. 19. Leave a 2-3 mm gap to the camshaft cover. Ensure that the bolt in the spark plug well is fully tightened.
Remove all the bolts securing the camshaft cover to the cylinder head. Lift the cover from the cylinder head. Install the applicable pliers at the stop lugs. See Fig. 20. Start at the cylinder and
work alternately backward. Loosen the hold-down wing nuts a few turns. Repeat the procedure until cover is loosened.
Under REMOVAL &
11.
13.
Fig. 17: Loosening Timing Belt Tensioner
Courtesy of VOLVO CARS OF NORTH AMERICA.
Fig. 18: Locating Variable Valve Solenoid

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ENGINE CONTROLS - ON-VEHICLE ADJUSTMENTS -2002 Volvo S40
Page 4 of 7
Courtesy of VOLVO CARS OF NORTH AMERICA.
Fig. 19: Identifying Installation Of Camshaft Cover Hold-Downs Courtesy of VOLVO CARS OF NORTH AMERICA.
Fig. 20: Removing Camshaft Cover
Courtesy of VOLVO CARS OF NORTH AMERICA.
14.
Carefully remove the front and rear camshaft seals. Do not damage the sealing surfaces on the camshafts. Remove camshaft cover hold-downs. Remove the camshaft cover. Remove the
camshafts.
15. Lift out the valve lifters using suction pads. Do not use magnets. Mark and position the lifters so that their original lifter positions can be determined.
Use a razor blade or a gasket scraper and appropriate gasket solvent on the camshaft cover. Take great care around the oil ducts for the variable valve timing solenoid. Dry and blow all surfaces
clean.
Carefully tap the end of the valve stem to ensure that the valve is correctly located in the seat. Use a plastic, aluminum or brass drift to protect the valve and the surface of the valve lifter. See Fig.
21. The sound made by tapping reveals if the valve is correctly seated.
16.
17.
Fig. 21: Setting Valve In Seat
Courtesy of VOLVO CARS OF NORTH AMERICA.
NOTE: The valve clearance tolerances are less at setting. When checking
the valve clearance through the plug hole the tolerances are larger. See Fig. 7.
NOTE: Valve clearance specification is at ambient temperature of 68°F (20° C). Clearance increases.0004" (.01 mm) for every 41°F (5°C) of
temperature increase.
18.
Install both the valve lifters for the inlet valves at cylinder No. 1. Select new valve lifters if necessary. Only install two valve lifters. The valve lifters must be placed at the same cylinder. The
valve clearance on a cold engine (68°F; 20°C) must be.008" +/-.001" (.20 +/- 0.03 mm) for intake valves and.016" +/-.001" (.40 +/- 0.03 mm) for exhaust valves.
19. Install the intake camshaft. Ensure that the lobes at cylinder No. 1 point upwards. Apply a little oil to the cam lobe and the upper side of the valve lifter to facilitate measurement later.
Install the camshaft press. Install the lower section of Camshaft Press (999 5765) at the intake valves for cylinder No. 1. See Fig. 22. Tighten the tool against the cylinder head. Tighten bolt to
13 ft. Lbs. (17 N.M). Turn the camshaft until it stops against the camshaft press.
Install the upper section of the camshaft press. Tighten the bolt which tensions the camshaft. Tighten to 106 INCH lbs. (12 N.M). See Fig. 23 and Fig. 24.
20.
21.
Fig. 22: Installing Camshaft Press Lower Section Courtesy of VOLVO CARS OF NORTH AMERICA.
Fig. 23: Installing Camshaft Press Upper Section Courtesy of VOLVO CARS OF NORTH AMERICA.

1/11/2012
ENGINE CONTROLS - ON-VEHICLE ADJUSTMENTS -2002 Volvo S40
Page 5 of 7
Fig. 24: Identifying Installation Of Camshaft Press Tool Courtesy of VOLVO CARS OF NORTH AMERICA.
NOTE: Measurement must be carried out on a cold engine (68°F; 20°C).
22.
Measure the valve clearance, using Feeler Gauge (999 5752). Press with a finger so that the feeler gauge lies parallel to the upper side of the tappet. Move the feeler gauge sideways when taking the
reading in order to obtain as accurate a measurement as possible. The valve clearance must
be.008" +/-.001" (.20 +/- 0.03 mm) for intake valves and.016" +/-.001" (.40 +/- 0.03 mm) for exhaust valves.
To correct the measured clearance, lift off the upper section of the press tool. Lift out the camshaft. Adjust the clearance by changing the valve lifters with appropriate replacement.
24. Install the camshaft and the upper section of the press tool. Tighten to 106 INCH lbs. (12 N.M). Take a new measurement. See step 22.
25. When the correct valve clearance is reached, remove Press Tool (999 5765), the camshaft and the valve lifters. Carefully mark the valve lifters so that exact reinstallation can be carried out. Repeat
the procedure for measuring the valve clearance for all cylinders on both the intake and exhaust sides.
23.
NOTE: Ensure that the lifters are replaced in the previous position as before.
Fig. 25: Aligning Camshafts
Courtesy of VOLVO CARS OF NORTH AMERICA.
26.
Install the valve lifters and camshafts. Lubricate the valve guide wells. Install all the valve lifters. Lubricate the camshaft bearing seats. Install the intake camshaft. Ensure that the groove at the rear
edge of the camshaft is above an imaginary center line. Position the exhaust camshaft. Ensure that the groove at the rear edge of the camshaft is below an imaginary center line. See Fig. 25.
NOTE: Ensure that no liquid gasket gets into the coolant or oil ducts.
27.
Apply liquid gasket. Wipe the oil film off the mating surfaces on the camshaft cover and cylinder head. Install new "O" rings around the spark plug wells on the cylinder head. Apply Liquid Gasket
(116 1059) to the camshaft cover. The surface must be completely covered without any excess. Only a thin layer of liquid gasket is required.
Install Camshaft Adjustment Tool (999 5452) at the rear of the camshafts. See CAMSHAFT SEALS under REMOVAL & INSTALLATION in 1.9L 4-CYLINDER TURBO ENGINE article.
See Fig. 26. Check that the bolts securing the adjustment tool to the camshafts and the bolts holding the tool together are well tightened.
28.
Fig. 26: Identifying Installation Of Camshaft & Crankshaft Adjustment Tools Courtesy of VOLVO CARS OF NORTH AMERICA.
29. Install the front camshaft seals. See CAMSHAFT SEALS under REMOVAL & INSTALLATION in 1.9L 4-CYLINDER TURBO ENGINE article.
Align the crankshaft. Remove the blind cover plug on the side of the engine block near the starter motor. Turn the crankshaft clockwise slightly to avoid the adjustment tool being in the wrong
30.

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ENGINE CONTROLS - ON-VEHICLE ADJUSTMENTS -2002 Volvo S40
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position. Install Crankshaft Adjustment tool (999 5451). Ensure that the adjustment tool bottoms out against the cylinder block. See Fig. 26. Turn the crankshaft back counterclockwise until it
stops against the drift. Check that the marking on the crankshaft timing gear pulley corresponds with the marking on the oil pump. See Fig. 16.
31. Install the camshaft timing gear pulleys and timing belt. See CAMSHAFT SEALS under REMOVAL & INSTALLATION in 1.9L 4-CYLINDER TURBO ENGINE article. Press the belt
to check that the indicator on the tensioner moves easily.
Position the upper timing cover. Turn the crankshaft two turns. Check that the markings on the crankshaft and camshaft pulley correspond. See Fig. 16. Check that the indicator on the belt
tensioner is within the marked area. See Fig. 27. 33. Remove the upper timing cover. See Fig. 3.
34. Install the right engine mount. See Fig. 15. Tighten bolts to specification. See TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS. Install the mounting bolt and nut in the bodywork bracket. Tighten by
hand.
35. Remove the lifting beam and lifting hook. Tighten the mounting nut.
36.
32.
Install the following items: ? Power steering reservoir.
? Metal bracket for the power steering hose on the rotation protection for the auxiliaries belt. See Fig. 9.
? Auxiliaries belt. See Fig. 11.
? Rear intake camshaft cover. Install new cover. ? Trigger wheel.
? Camshaft position sensor housing.
? Hose for the crankcase ventilation on the camshaft cover. ? Ignition coils.
? Ignition harness cables.
? Connectors on the variable valve timing valve and ignition coils. ? Ground lead for the ignition coils. See Fig. 5.
? Camshaft position sensor.
Place the cable duct and cable harness in position. See Fig. 12
38. Install the remaining components: ? Bolts for the cable duct on the rear edge of the cylinder head and throttle body bracket. ? Connectors for the fuel injectors.
? Connector for the engine coolant temperature sensor. ? Inlet hose the mass air flow sensor and throttle body.
? Front timing cover. See Fig. 4.
? Cover over the ignition coils. See Fig. 5. ? Upper timing cover.
? Cover over the throttle body. ? Cover over the injectors.
39. Install the blind cover plug. Install the starter motor. See Fig. 8. Install the support bracket for the intake manifold. See Fig. 9. Install the connector for the oil pressure switch. Install the front air
baffle and the right front wheel. Connect the cable to the battery negative terminal. See
37.
.

1/11/2012
ENGINE CONTROLS - ON-VEHICLE ADJUSTMENTS -2002 Volvo S40
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BATTERY DISCONNECT/RECONNECT PRECAUTIONS.
40. Check the oil level and the coolant level. Warm up the engine until the thermostat opens. Check the engine for leaks. Top up the coolant if necessary.
Fig. 27: Identifying Timing Belt Tension Positions Courtesy of VOLVO CARS OF NORTH AMERICA.
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Rivermikerat
Jan 11, 2012.
Article images attached. Let us know if you need the rest. There's a whole bunch of them for this repair.


Rivermikerat
Jan 11, 2012.
Wish I could here the noise to try and help you out? I know the exhaust nuts fall right off on this vehicles and develop a real load exhaust noise. Is this what your maybe hearing? To get a real good view the heat shields need to be removed. If you think it is the engine how is the oil level? Also has the oil light come on?


JIS001
Jan 14, 2012.

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