To obtain a high purification rate for the CO, HO and NOx components of the exhaust gas, a three-way catalytic converter is used, but for the most efficient use of the three-way catalytic converter, the air-fuel ratio must be precisely controlled so that it is always close to the stoichiometric air-fuel ratio.
The oxygen sensor has the characteristic where by its output voltage changes suddenly in the vicinity of the stoichiometric air-fuel ratio. This is used to detect the oxygen concentration in the exhaust gas and provide feedback to the computer for control of the air-fuel ratio.
When the air-fuel ratio becomes LEAN, the oxygen concentration in the exhaust increases and the oxygen sensor informs the ECM of the LEAN condition (small electromotive force: 0 V).
When the air-fuel ratio is RICHER than the stoichiometric air-fuel ratio the oxygen concentration in the exhaust gas in reduced and the oxygen sensor informs the ECM of the RICH condition (large electromotive force: 1 V). The ECM judges by the electromotive force from the oxygen sensor whether the air-fuel ratio is RICH or LEAN and controls the injection time accordingly. However, if malfunction of the oxygen sensor causes output of abnormal electromotive force, the ECM is unable to perform accurate air-fuel ratio control. The main heated oxygen sensors include a heater which heats the zirconia element The heater is controlled by the ECM. When the intake air volume is low (the temp. Of the exhaust gas is low) current flows to the heater to heat the sensor for accurate oxygen concentration detection.
HINT: Sensor 1 refers to the sensor closer to the engine body.
The heated oxygen sensor's output voltage and the short-term fuel trim value can be read using the OBD II scan tool or TOYOTA hand-held tester.
Sunday, May 5th, 2013 AT 4:22 PM