FUEL EVAPORATIVE SYSTEM (EVAP)
The EVAP system allows for proper fuel system ventilation while preventing fuel vapors from reaching the atmosphere. This means that vapors must be caught and stored while the engine is off, which is when most fuel evaporation occurs. When the engine is started, these fuel vapors can be removed from storage and burned. In most systems, storage is provided by an activated charcoal (or carbon) canister.
On a few early systems, charcoal canisters are not used. Instead, fuel vapors are vented into the PCV system and stored inside the crankcase.
The main components of a fuel evaporation system are a sealed fuel tank, a liquid-vapor separator and vent lines to a vapor-storing canister filled with activated charcoal. The filler cap is normally not vented to the atmosphere, but is fitted with a valve to allow both pressure and vacuum relief.
Although a few variations do exist between manufacturers, basic operation is the same for all systems. Check for presence of vapor storage canister or crankcase storage connections when required. Ensure required hoses, solenoids, etc., are present and connected properly. Check for proper type fuel tank cap. Check for any non-OEM or auxiliary fuel tanks for compliance and the required number of evaporation canisters.