Step by step guide on how an automotive standard (manual) transmission works,
this information pertains to most standard transmission equipped vehicles.
- The standard transmission is the most
basic transmission in the automotive industry and is controlled by the driver through
the use of a gear selector and a clutch assembly, which enables the engine to become
disconnected from the transmission.
Standard Transmission Gear Selector
- To start the activation of the transmission
which moves the vehicle forward or backward, start with the transmission in neutral,
apply one foot on the brake pedal and depress the clutch and start the engine, then
select either first or reverse. While the clutch pedal is depressed transfer the
foot from the brake pedal and slightly press the accelerator to raise engine speed
while simultaneously decreasing clutch pedal pressure allowing the pedal to rise,
at this point the vehicle will start to move. This operation takes some practice,
for a beginner try this, once the clutch pedal is allowed to rise by releasing foot
pressure, the car will start to move, push the pedal back down and the car will
coast while disengaging the engine, continue this process until comfortable with
the clutch operation. As the car gains speed in first gear, depress the clutch
again and transfer the gear selector to the next gear and release the clutch pedal
and so on. (Note: When the vehicle is at a stop, the transmission must be in neutral
or the clutch pedal depressed or the engine will stall shaking the car.)
of a pressure plate and disc that is mounted on the engine flywheel which is used
by the starter when the engine is being cranked over (started.)
Clutch On Rear of Engine ( Transmission Removed - Under View )
- The transmission is bolted to the rear
of the engine using a rear mount and bracket to secure the unit while in operation.
Standard Transmission Installed - (Rear Mount Removed)
- Inside the transmission is a series of
gears, bearings, shafts and synchros which are used at various times during the
transmission's operation. These components are lubricated by transmission fluid
located inside the case. Most transmissions contain three shafts: input, output
and counter or lay shaft in which the gears and bearings reside.
Standard Transmission Cutaway
- A U joint is used to couple the transmission
to the driveshaft which is connected to the differential, this connector can become
worn causing a vibration or clicking noise.
Syncros are designed to slow gears to a stop before they are engaged to avoid
gear grinding, when these syncros wear the gear remains spinning which produces
a grinding sound. Gear quantity and ratios are designed into a particular transmission
to perform a specific task. A gear selector can be referred to as a shifter, or
gear shift. Standard transmissions are more efficient, stronger and less expensive
to produce than its automatic counterpart.
The standard transmission was first introduced into the automobile industry by
the German and American car manufacturers.
Article first published 2016-02-05